Dernière mise à jour : 22-08-2017

36 sujets INAC

• Biotechnology, biophotonics

• Cellular biology, physiology and cellular imaging

• Chemistry

• Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics

• Materials and applications

• Mesoscopic physics

• Physical chemistry and electrochemistry

• Radiation-matter interactions

• Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces

• Theoretical Physics

• Thermal energy, combustion, flows

• Toxicology

• Ultra-divided matter, Physical sciences for materials

 

Blood biomarkers quantification: Point-of-Care applications

SL-DRF-17-0398

Research field : Biotechnology, biophotonics
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Groupe Chimie pour la Reconnaissance et l'Etudes d'Assemblages Biologiques (CREAB)

Grenoble

Contact :

Myriam CUBIZOLLES

Arnaud BUHOT

Starting date : 01-11-2016

Contact :

Myriam CUBIZOLLES

CEA - DRT/DTBS/SBSC/LBAM

04 38 78 96 61

Thesis supervisor :

Arnaud BUHOT

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/CREAB

04 38 78 38 68

Patient health care implies blood biomarkers dosage for both diagnostic and treatment follow up. Amongst various detection modes, we selected immuno-PCR and autologous red blood cells agglutination as methods of choice. These two detection modes both employ bispecific reagents simultaneously able to recognize the target of interest and reveal detection signal.

The main objective of this PhD is to demonstrate the feasibility of a direct assay in a drop of whole blood of the patient by a portable device (such as Point-of-Care POC). The goal is to achieve similar detection limits to those of the ELISA method.

Epigenetic Cytosine Modifications In Leukemia

SL-DRF-17-0825

Research field : Cellular biology, physiology and cellular imaging
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Laboratoire Lésions des Acides Nucléiques

Grenoble

Contact :

Jean BRETON

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Jean BRETON

Université Grenoble Alpes - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/CIBEST

04-38-78-56-01

Thesis supervisor :

Jean BRETON

Université Grenoble Alpes - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/CIBEST

04-38-78-56-01

Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic process playing an important role in gene expression regulation. Recently, it has been proven that this mechanism is more complicated than expected. Indeed, other cytosine modifications have been identified in DNA: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-fC), and 5-carboxycytosine (5-caC).

Carcinogenesis is often associated to changes in the proportion and distribution of cytosine epigenetic modifications in DNA. This work will be focused on MyeloDysplatic Syndrome (MDS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Using cellular models and patients samples, we will: (i) measure and compare 5-mC, 5-hmC, 5-fC and 5-caC levels in different forms of MDS and AML. These rates will be obtained globally for whole DNA, and in specific gene regulation sequences. We will also measure the expression of key genes involved in DNA methylation and demethylation. (ii) Using the same approaches, we will study the influence of therapeutic agents on epigenetic cytosine modifications.

These experiments should help us to improve our understanding of carcinogenesis and responses to anticancer treatements.

Synthesis and characterization of new functional organic materials for application in dye sensitized solar cellswith variable optical transmission

SL-DRF-17-0933

Research field : Chemistry
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Laboratoire d'Electronique Moléculaire, Organique et Hybride (LEMOH)

Grenoble

Contact :

Renaud DEMADRILLE

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Renaud DEMADRILLE

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/LEMOH

04 38 78 44 84

Thesis supervisor :

Renaud DEMADRILLE

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/LEMOH

04 38 78 44 84

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/57/renaud.demadrille.html

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_service.php?id_unit=1147

More : http://www.spram-solar.fr/

Among the emerging photovoltaic technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) show some of the required features for applications and future developments at the industrial level. The SyMMES laboratory has started to develop since 2012, new purely organic dyes for the replacement of ruthenium dyes in DSSCs. Some of these new molecules have shown high performances (above 10%) and outstanding stability (more than 5000h under continuous irradiation at 65°C) when combined to ionic-liquid based electrolytes.

In this thesis project we propose to develop a new class of organic sensitizers based on functional aromatic chromophores (patent pending).These molecules are expected to show tunable absorption in the visible range. The functional aromatic heterocycles will be developed in the first part of the project and incorporated in chemical structures of push-pull type organic dyes. Using this strategy we will develop sensitizers with variable absorption bands.

In order to develop more robust and efficient solar cells, ionic liquid electrolytes containing iodine-free redox systems will be developed. Our objective will be to obtain fully transparent and stable electrolytes to give rise to a new generation of robust and efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with variable optical transmission.

Using the research facilities of Hybrid-En and the equipment that is available in SyMMES the new molecules and electrolytes will be fully characterized (structural, electrochemical, optical properties), and they will be incorporated and tested in devices. Their photovoltaic performances and their stability will be evaluated.

Germanium doping of GaN-based nanostructures for LEDs

SL-DRF-17-0248

Research field : Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Laboratoire de Nano Physique des Semi-Conducteurs (NPSC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Eva MONROY

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Eva MONROY

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/NPSC

0438789068

Thesis supervisor :

Eva MONROY

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/NPSC

0438789068

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/100/eva.monroy.html

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_groupe.php?id_groupe=15

The target of this thesis is to assess the advantages and physical limits of Ge doping of GaN as compared to Si doping, by analyzing Ge-doped thin films and NWs by means of cutting-edge structural characterization, namely Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and correlating the structural/chemical features with the optical and electrical performance.



The nanostructures will be designed in view of their incorporation in GaN LED devices:

* (Al)GaN thin films and quantum wells: Ge is expected to increase the n-type GaN thickness before cracking. Side effects on resistivity and structural and optical properties are to be evaluated. The onset of DX behavior in AlGaN will be studied.

* GaN NWs: The potential improvement of the NW morphology and homogeneity of the dopant distribution are to be studied.

* Impact in the complete device structure: We will evaluate the effect of Ge doping on the uppermost layers of the LEDs, including the presence or not of segregation or memory effects.

Spintronics for novel wake-up receivers in wireless sensor networks

SL-DRF-17-0412

Research field : Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics
Location :

Spintronique et technologie des composants (SPINTEC)

Laboratoire Spintec (SPINTEC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Dominique MORCHE

Ursula EBELS

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Dominique MORCHE

CEA - DRT/DACLE//LAIR

33 4 38785403

Thesis supervisor :

Ursula EBELS

CEA - DRF/INAC/SPINTEC/SPINTEC

04 38 78 53 44

Personal web page : www.spintec.fr

More : fp7-mosaic.eu

Wireless sensor networks WSN are about to change our everyday life in the aim to improve amongst others its quality, safety, and energy consumption. This is pushing R&D efforts to develop scalable, energy efficient and autonomous WSN nodes that monitor or control some physical parameter (e.g temperature, pollution). The most energy consuming part of a WSN node is the radio link and novel approaches are searched for. One approach is the wake-up receiver, that powers up the energy consuming radio links only when addressed. Wake-up Receivers WuR themselves should be ultra-low cost and immune to parasitic signals. Here spintronics components can provide robust and simple solutions. Recent studies on spintronic devices have demonstrated their rf-to-DC conversion capabilities by which they can act as passive frequency selective demodulators with high sensitivity to low input power.

The thesis aims to demonstrate such a spintronic based Wake-up Receiver in the frequency range of 0.1-1GHz and includes the following tasks:

- optimization of the spintronic device characteristics (output signal, signal to noise ratio, bandwidth, response time) through improved magnetic stack design

- development of electrical models of the spintronic device

- conceiving an architecture for the wake-up receiver

- development and test of the WuR with the spintronic device.

This is a multidisciplinary subject building on the expertise of two CEA research laboratories: INAC/SPINTEC on the microwave properties of spintronic devices and LETI/DACLE on conception of active WSNs. It will be in collaboration with CNRS/Thales (spintronic laboratory), who are partners in a joint ANR project that has been submitted on this subject in Octobre 2016.

Double magnetic tunnel junctions suitable for automotive memory applications

SL-DRF-17-0488

Research field : Materials and applications
Location :

Spintronique et technologie des composants (SPINTEC)

Laboratoire Spintec (SPINTEC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Etienne NOWAK

Ricardo SOUSA

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Etienne NOWAK

CEA - DRT/DCOS//LCM

04 38 78 09 88

Thesis supervisor :

Ricardo SOUSA

CEA - DRF/INAC/SPINTEC/SPINTEC

0438784895

Laboratory link : www.spintec.fr

There is an increase interest in microelectronics industry for a new type of magnetic non-volatile memory called STT-MRAM. In these memories the storage elements are magnetic tunnel junctions which consist of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a thin tunnel oxide barrier (MgO). They are about to be introduced in products for consumer electronics. It is envisioned that they could play also a very important role in industrial and automotive applications but for the latter, the specifications are much more stringent in terms of reliability and operating temperatures (up to 150°C instead of 80°C for consumer electronics). During this thesis we propose to explore several routes allowing to increase the performances of these memories in terms of switching speed, power consumption and operating range.

Imaging Non-Equilibrium Superconductivity

SL-DRF-17-0519

Research field : Mesoscopic physics
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Laboratoire de Transport Electronique Quantique et Supraconductivité (LATEQS)

Grenoble

Contact :

Claude CHAPELIER

Starting date : 01-09-2017

Contact :

Claude CHAPELIER

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/LATEQS

0438783905

Thesis supervisor :

Claude CHAPELIER

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/LATEQS

0438783905

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/vincent.renard/GroupSite/

Superconductors with a large normal-state resistivity, such as titanium nitride (TiN), are ideal materials for kinetic inductance photon detectors and superconducting parametric amplifiers.

At the same time, the large resistivity gives rise to localization of electrons, which directly competes with superconductivity and leads to a superconductor-to-insulator transition. It has been shown that close to this transition, the superconducting state becomes intrinsically inhomogeneous. This electronic inhomogeneity should influence the quasiparticle dynamics. Indeed, the electrodynamic response of strongly disordered superconductors is increasingly modified with increasing disorder. Qualitatively, these observations could be explained by a model where quasiparticles are trapped in regions with lower order parameter, intrinsically present in these materials.



The aim of the PhD project is to check this model by mapping the superconducting inhomogeneities of a TiN nanowire with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) working at 50 mK and to simultaneously monitor the critical current of the superconducting nanowire as a function of the tip position. This will lead to the local Cooper pair breaking efficiency of the injection of quasiparticle at different energies. Experiments will also be performed at finite magnetic field in the vicinity of a vortex core (quantum flux tube piercing the superconductor) to understand the competition between the trapping of quasiparticles inside the vortex and the recombination process into Cooper pairs. This PhD work is a collaborative project between CEA-INAC and IRAM laboratories. During the master internship, the student will be trained to the growth of TiN films by sputtering and will characterize their superconducting properties by tunneling spectroscopy (STM) at low temperature. During the following PhD work, he (she) will make the nanowire in a clean room facility by electronic lithography and etching and will then perform the out-of-equilibrium spectroscopy with an STM at 50 mK.

CMOS spin qubits

SL-DRF-17-0988

Research field : Mesoscopic physics
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Laboratoire de Transport Electronique Quantique et Supraconductivité (LATEQS)

Grenoble

Contact :

Silvano DEFRANCESCHI

Marc SANQUER

Starting date : 01-09-2016

Contact :

Silvano DEFRANCESCHI

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/LATEQS

04 38785480

Thesis supervisor :

Marc SANQUER

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/LATEQS

04 76 38 43 67

Quantum computing is a major new frontier in information technology with the potential for a disruptive impact. Many different materials and approaches have been explored so far, with an increasing effort on scalable implementations based on solid-state platforms. Among these, silicon is emerging as a promising route to quantum computing. Elementary silicon qubit devices made in academic research labs have already shown high-fidelity operation. Following these successful developments, a collaborative research action is being deployed in Grenoble with the purpose to take this technology to the next readiness level by showing that silicon-based qubits can be realized within an industrial level CMOS platform. In doing so we want to establish the true potential of silicon-based qubits in terms of scalability and manufacturability.



This PhD project deals with the realization of silicon spin qubits based on CMOS technology. The silicon qubits consist of multi-gate devices fabricated using 300-mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, which is available at the CEA-LETI in Grenoble.

The PhD student will integrate a research team at the INAC institute of CEA-Grenoble and contribute to the implementation and study of spin qubit devices. The student is expected to carry out a variety of electrical measurements from room to low (10 mK) temperature. Qubit experiments will involve high-frequency signals for spin manipulation and readout. Coding of measurement programs and simple device modeling (e.g. of the local electromagnetic fields) may as well be envisioned.

The proposed research subject is part of a recently started long-term effort involving multiple laboratories in Grenoble (LETI, INAC, NEEL) as well as a European network of collaborations.

Superconducting Circuits in Silicon Technology

SL-DRF-17-0356

Research field : Mesoscopic physics
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Laboratoire de Transport Electronique Quantique et Supraconductivité (LATEQS)

Grenoble

Contact :

François LEFLOCH

Starting date : 01-10-2016

Contact :

François LEFLOCH

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/LATEQS

04-38-78-48-22

Thesis supervisor :

François LEFLOCH

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/LATEQS

04-38-78-48-22

A big advantage of the Silicon technology is its maturity and reliability. Incidentally, some materials used or useful in silicon based devices are superconducting at low temperature. The objective of this project is then to realize a new kind of MOSFET transistor-like devices for which the drain and sources electrodes will be superconducting. Once realized, these new quantum circuits will allow developing quantum architectures in a scalable technology.

At low temperature, a Silicon nano-MOSFET transistor behaves as a single electron transistor due to the electrostatic confinement and Coulomb interaction. This situation appears when the charging energy becomes larger than the thermal energy. On the other hand, the superconductivity is described by the condensation of a very large number of electrons pairs in a macroscopic quantum state. On a purely scientific level, the goal of this study is to understand better how antagonist properties can coexist in such hybrid devices. The objective will then be to fabricate devices like Josephson junction controlled by a gate and in which current can flow with no dissipation. These components, coupled to a capacitor, allow fabricating superconducting qubit for which the energy levels separation can be controlled by the gate. This point is important to adjust the coupling of the qubit with a superconducting cavity whose resonant frequency is fixed by the design. In many experimental situations, it is this coupling that allows reading or transferring the quantum information carried by the qubit.

From a technological point of view, the electrodes will be fabricated from superconducting silicides such as the platinum mono-silicide (PtSi) or Boron doped Silicon (Si:B) that can be superconducting using laser doping/annealing. In the case of silicides, the goal is to control the metal/semiconductor solid state reaction in order to obtain the good superconducting phase as close as possible to the transistor channel. For Si:B, the issue is to control the laser doping/annealing first on Silicon on insulator (SOI) and then on pre-existing devices without damaging them. The technological objective is to reduce the access resistances which are an important source of dissipation in commercial sub-micron transistors. It is a major issue in the micro-nano electronics industry where the energy consumption is a limiting factor for development.

In practice, the student will be part of the INAC/PHELIQS/LaTEQS laboratory and will join the DTSI/SDEP group at the CEA/LETI for the realization of simplified test structures and devices in a clean room. The low temperature measurements will be performed at the LATEQS at the CEA/INAC.

Quantum dots coated with active ligands: towards affordable redox photocatalysts working with visible light

SL-DRF-17-0836

Research field : Physical chemistry and electrochemistry
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Laboratoire de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination

Grenoble

Contact :

Vincent MAUREL

Jean-Marie MOUESCA

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Vincent MAUREL

CEA - DSM/INAC/SYMMES/CAMPE

04 38 78 35 98

Thesis supervisor :

Jean-Marie MOUESCA

CEA - DSM/INAC/SYMMES/CAMPE

04 38 78 30 13

The proposed PhD thesis aims at developing and studying a new class of photocatalysts based on colloidal quantum dots. The aim is to obtain photocatalyst that will be i/ made of affordable materials, ii/ working with visible light, iii/ able to photocatalyse redox reactions useful for organic synthesis in mild conditions. The originality of the systems based on quantum dots proposed in this project is their functionnalisation by redox-active ligands in order to promote the separation of photoinduced charges and their transfer from the quantum dots core to the substrates. To investigate the versatility of this new class of photocatalysts, its efficiency will be tested both 1/ for organic chemistry reactions in organic solvents and 2/ for reactions with biochemical substrates in water.

Such [quantum dots + active ligands] systems will be investigated by optical and magnetic resonance time resolved spectroscopies in order to study transients produced by electron/hole transfer. Our group has a strong expertise in the experimental detection of photoinduced transient species and in the functionnalization of quantum dots. We have designed a time resolved electron spin resonance setup able to detect with 100 ns time resolution the transient species created by electron transfert following a nanosecond Laser flash.

During this work, the student will learn first the experimental techniques (including time resolved spectroscopies), then identify new [quantum dots + active ligands] systems and study how structural parameters can improve the efficiency of these systems. The interaction between the redox active ligands and quantum dots core will be investigated by DFT calculations.

Cryogenic Magic Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization: pushing the limits of sensitivity in solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

SL-DRF-17-1039

Research field : Physical chemistry and electrochemistry
Location :

Modélisation et Exploration des Matériaux (MEM)

Laboratoire de Résonance Magnétique (RM)

Grenoble

Contact :

Sabine HEDIGER

Gaël DE PAEPE

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Sabine HEDIGER

CNRS - RM/Laboratoire de Résonance Magnétique

+33438786579

Thesis supervisor :

Gaël DE PAEPE

CEA - DRF/INAC/MEM

04 38 78 65 70

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/gael.depaepe/

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_visu.php?id_ast=1111

INAC (Institute for Nanoscience and Cryogenics, CEA Grenoble) has a PhD opening for a physical chemist. This PhD deals with the development of a new and emerging technique called solid-state MAS-DNP (Magic Angle spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization). This hyperpolarization technique allows recording solid-state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) experiments that can be used to extract atomic-scale structural information such as: surface functionalization, inter-nuclei distances, etc.

This technique has recently proven particularly useful when applied to systems that cannot be successfully studied using X-ray crystallography or solution-state NMR. Thanks to huge sensitivity gains from the hyperpolarization, leading to experimental time-savings of several orders of magnitude, one can now start to study very challenging systems (such as porous materials, self-assembled nano-assemblies, silicon nanoparticles/nanowires, etc.), which were so far lacking efficient atomic-scale characterization.

This PhD will take place in a highly dynamical environment at the MINATEC campus (CEA Grenoble) within the MEM laboratory (CEA INAC) where the DNP group, in collaboration with the Bruker company (world leader in NMR instrumentation), is currently pushing the development and use of this technique (high magnetic field DNP) far beyond its state-of-the-art. The group is working with the first high-field MAS-DNP system installed in France (since September 2011) and has successfully conducted instrumental and methodological developments in the subsequent years. Notably, the group has built equipment that can sustainably cool large flows of Helium gas and thus consequently has access to MAS-DNP performed at very low temperatures (10-100 K), which opens a whole realm of experimental possibilities.

This PhD work will take place within a larger ERC-funded project (PI G. De Paëpe) involving strong partnerships between academic laboratories and industrial partners.

Advanced sources for photonic quantum engineering

SL-DRF-17-0957

Research field : Radiation-matter interactions
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Laboratoire de Nano Physique des Semi-Conducteurs (NPSC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Jean-Michel GERARD

Julien CLAUDON

Starting date : 01-09-2017

Contact :

Jean-Michel GERARD

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/NPSC

0438783134

Thesis supervisor :

Julien CLAUDON

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/NPSC

0438784984

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Membres/Annuaire/?uid=jmgerard

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/en/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_service.php?id_unit=1150

Quantum sources of light such as single photon sources (SPS) and sources of entangled photon pairs (SEPP) are a key resource for quantum communications, photonic quantum computing and simulation, and quantum sensing. In spite of important advances over the last 15 years, present day sources are still far from real applications to quantum engineering : 1) highly efficient single photon sources have not yet been demonstrated at telecom wavelength (which is essential for quantum communications); 2) spectral- tuning has to be developed to match the emission wavelength of several SPS to a given target wavelength; 3) the efficiency of the best SEPP is presently limited to 0.1 pair per pulse.

This PhD project will target the development of practical sources for photonic quantum engineering, and will solve these three issues by following a highly innovative approach. We will start from the “photonic trumpet” geometry introduced by INAC in 2013, which has already enabled the demonstration of record-efficiency SPS and is (unlike microcavities!) well suited to collect light over a wide spectral range. We will use material strain as a tuning knob to tailor the optical properties of an embedded quantum dot (QD) : we will target bandgap tuning over a wide range, and the cancellation of the fine exciton splitting due to QD asymmetry in view of entangled pair generation. Integration of the trumpets on piezoelectric transducers and bending of the trumpets using electrostatic effects will both be explored as means to apply additional strain to the QD. The PhD will take part to the nanofabrication of the sources, and will take in charge their study (efficiency, purity, tunability, degree of entanglement) using optical spectroscopy and quantum optics techniques.

Development of Bragg coherent X-ray imaging and application to semiconductor nanostructures for electronic devices

SL-DRF-17-0225

Research field : Radiation-matter interactions
Location :

Modélisation et Exploration des Matériaux (MEM)

Laboratoire Nanostructures et Rayonnement Synchrotron (NRS)

Grenoble

Contact :

Joël EYMERY

Vincent FAVRE-NICOLIN

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Joël EYMERY

CEA - DRF/INAC/MEM/NRS

04 38 78 30 15

Thesis supervisor :

Vincent FAVRE-NICOLIN

ESRF-The European Synchrotron - ESRF

0476882811

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Pisp/index.php?nom=joel.eymery

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_groupe.php?id_groupe=14

More : http://www.esrf.eu/UsersAndScience/Experiments/XNP

Optimising performances of semi-conductor nano-structures relies on precise strain control. This PhD subject focuses on the use on Coherent X-ray Imaging techniques, which allow to reconstruct single objects with a resolution of 5 to 10 nm. The main objectives of the study are:

- Development of 2D and 3D strain mapping using coherent X-ray imaging, taking into account all the characteristics of the focused X-ray beam

- The quantitative study of objects, including non-isolated.

- The application to ultra-thin Si-Ge strained nano-structures, developed by a CEA-LETI / ST Microelectronics collaboration.



This PhD is co-financed by the European Synchrotron ESRF, with the prospect of the 'Extremely Brilliant Source' upgrade which will provide in 2019 a 100 fold increase of the coherent X-ray flux.

Tuning spin-orbit coupling in silicon and germanium for spin generation, detection and manipulation

SL-DRF-17-0372

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

Spintronique et technologie des composants (SPINTEC)

Laboratoire Spintec (SPINTEC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Alain MARTY

Matthieu JAMET

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Alain MARTY

CEA - DRF/INAC/SPINTEC/SPINTEC

0438783366

Thesis supervisor :

Matthieu JAMET

CEA - DRF/INAC/SPINTEC/SPINTEC

04 38 78 22 62

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/matthieu.jamet/

Laboratory link : http://www.spintec.fr/research/2d-spintronics/

The aim of semiconductor spintronics is to use the electron spin in addition to its charge in microelectronics devices. The spin degree of freedom adds new functionalities to existing devices and will allow to reduce power consumption. The three requirements for the development of such technology are the generation, detection and manipulation of spin polarized electrons in Si or Ge (the materials of today’s microelectronics). A new paradigm has recently raised in the spintronics community which consists in using the spin-orbit coupling to complete those three operations. The spin-orbit coupling couples the electron momentum and spin. Hence, it makes possible the spin manipulation by electric fields but also the inter-conversion between charge currents and spin currents by the spin Hall effect in bulk materials or the Rashba effect at interfaces.

Unfortunately, in bulk Si and Ge, the spin-orbit coupling is too weak and this is the objective of this thesis work to study ways to enhance it. First, we will focus on metal/Si(111) and Ge(111) interfaces where the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is predicted very strong. Then, two more promising systems will be investigated: topological insulator/Si(111) and Ge(111) interfaces as well as Si and Ge thin films doped with heavy atoms. The candidate will benefit from the long standing experience of our group in semiconductor spintronics and from the close collaboration with the CEA LETI.



In order to build the final spin transistor device, the student will perform the following tasks:

1) Epitaxial growth of magnetic tunnel junctions on Si, Ge. They will constitute the spin injection and detection électrodes.

2) Epitaxial growth of the metal/Si and metal/Ge Rashba states

3) Nanofabrication of the devices in the clean room using optical and electronic lithography

4) Magnetotransport measurements on the final devices using a dedicated cryostat (2-300 K, 0-7 Tesla)

5) Interpretation of electrical signals using existing models. Development of new models. Finite elements numerical simulations to visualize the spin currents in the structures.

Memristive Magnetic Memories for spintronics synapses

SL-DRF-17-0523

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

Spintronique et technologie des composants (SPINTEC)

Laboratoire Spintec (SPINTEC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Liliana-Daniela BUDA-PREJBEANU

Bernard DIENY

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Liliana-Daniela BUDA-PREJBEANU

Grenoble INP - DRF/INAC/SPINTEC/SPINTEC

04 38 78 44 19

Thesis supervisor :

Bernard DIENY

CEA - DRF/INAC/SPINTEC/SPINTEC

04 38 78 38 70

Laboratory link : www.spintec.fr

Conventional electronic circuits consume much more energy than human brain at comparable performances (~50MW for supercomputer vs 20W for human brain). Consequently, there is a strong interest in developing electronic circuits which mimic the working principle of the brain. These circuits are particularly suited for learning functions, associative functions, pattern recognition etc. For that purpose, it is necessary to develop new electronic components which realize neurons and/or synaptic functions. Synapses are interconnection elements between neurons able to keep the memory of the history of the current pulses to which they have been submitted.

In this thesis, we propose to develop such electronic synapses based on spintronics phenomena and particularly the tunnel magnetoresistance of magnetic tunnel junctions and spin transfer torque. The component resistance will vary continuously between a minimum and a maximum value depending on the succession of current pulses flowing through it (memristor). The work will capitalize on the strong know how existing at SPINTEC on spin-transfer torque oscillators and MRAM magnetoresistive memories.

The thesis will start by micromagnetic simulations aiming at dimensioning the device and properly choosing the most appropriate materials. These materials will then be experimentally optimized and memristive devices will be fabricated in our clean room. They will then be electrically tested in the lab to demonstrate the memristive behavior. Simple neuromorphic circuits will then be built to demonstrate the capability of learning and pattern recognition.

Biomimetic optical-nose development: from chemistry to artificial intelligence

SL-DRF-17-0975

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Groupe Chimie pour la Reconnaissance et l'Etudes d'Assemblages Biologiques (CREAB)

Grenoble

Contact :

Yanxia HOU-BROUTIN

Arnaud BUHOT

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Yanxia HOU-BROUTIN

CNRS - DSM/INAC/SyMMES/CREAB

04 38 78 94 78

Thesis supervisor :

Arnaud BUHOT

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/CREAB

04 38 78 38 68

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/arnaud.buhot/

Electronic noses (eNs) have emerged as promising tools for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with potential applications in a wide range of domains such as biomedicine. However, so far, their performance is still far behind that of the human nose.

In this thesis, we propose a new paradigm to prepare sensing materials by combining two recognition principles used in the human nose: specific recognition and cross-reactive interaction, with the aim to greatly improve the performances of eNs and to explore their potential applications in biomedical domains.

Herein, peptides will be used as building blocks for the preparation of sensing receptors. On the one hand, based on a biomimetic approach, we aim to obtain sensing receptors that can mimic binding properties of olfactory receptors, and on the other hand, based on a combinatorial approach developed in our laboratory, we aim to prepare cross-reactive receptors with great diversity giving correlated signals (landscapes). In particular, fundamental studies will be conducted to better understand and control the chemical and physical phenomena implicated in the interaction between peptides and VOCs. This will be achieved using surface analysis and thin layer characterization techniques available at PFNC. Surface plasmon resonance imaging will be used as the optical system for the analysis of various VOCs, with a special emphasis on the problematic of anosmia-related issues. A particular theoretical effort in data analysis will be made for establishing appropriate criteria for classification purposes by using cognitive approaches and artificial intelligence via collaboration with local scientists.

Investigation of the ageing mechanisms in Silicon-based Lithium-ion batteries by in-situ and operando scattering techniques

SL-DRF-17-0512

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

Modélisation et Exploration des Matériaux (MEM)

Groupe Service Général de Rayons X (SGX)

Grenoble

Contact :

Stéphanie POUGET

Sandrine LYONNARD

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Stéphanie POUGET

CEA - DRF/INAC/MEM/SGX

04 38 78 54 63

Thesis supervisor :

Sandrine LYONNARD

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/PCI

04 38 78 92 86

Silicon, due to its great capacity (3576 mAh/g), is one of the best candidates to substitute graphite in the new generation of Lithium-ion batteries. Yet, Silicon anodes present large volume expansion during the lithiation which induces a large irreversible capacity. Silicon based nanostructured materials (nanoparticles, nanowires, nanocomposites) attract considerable attention because they can mitigate volume expansion effects, increase the surface area and allow innovative architectures. Understanding the basic mechanisms of lithiation and delithiation in these materials is critical to improve the performance and lifetime of Li-ion batteries. Although post-mortem investigations at various states of (dis)charges are invaluable, there is a growing interest in operando methods to continuously diagnose the battery components in the course of device cycling.

In this subject, we propose a combination of cutting-edge in-situ and operando scattering techniques to address the problematic of ageing in Lithium-ion batteries with nanoSilicon-based electrodes more particularly focusing on critical processes such as Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) formation, structural deformations and size variations of the nano-objects. X-rays reflectivity, X-rays diffraction, Small Angle Neutron and X-rays scattering are ideal tools to probe the electrode-electrolyte interface, the size, shape, organization and internal structure of Si nano-objects. These techniques will be coupled with electrochemical characterizations, with the aim of providing a detailed understanding of complex mechanisms occurring during the charge and the discharge of the Lithium battery, which are critical for improving the performances of these energy storage devices.

New alloys of the GeSn family: a direct band gap in group IV semiconductors

SL-DRF-17-0162

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Laboratoire Silicium Nanoélectronique Photonique et Structures (SINAPS)

Grenoble

Contact :

Nicolas PAUC

Vincent CALVO

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Nicolas PAUC

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/SINAPS

04 38 78 18 04

Thesis supervisor :

Vincent CALVO

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/SINAPS

0438781809

This project aims at realizing a new type of semiconducting laser source based on germanium (Ge) and tin (Sn), which was recently demonstrated in 2015 [1] and 2016 [2]. Ge and Sn are compatible with microelectronic processes, making GeSn laser a breakthrought for silicon photonics.

Within this PhD, we propose to elaborate thin films of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Si substrates in order to get at short term the laser effect under optical injection. A strong effort will be devoted to the synthesis of heterostructures which offer carrier and photon confinement in the active medium, with the goal to lower the laser threshold. To reach this goal, we will developp in collaboraion with CEA-LETI the synthesis of ternary Ge1-x-ySnxSiy alloys, envisionned as barrier materials. The fundamental properties of the as synthesized materials such as the band gap energy, the confinement energy offered by the heterostructure, the internal quantum yield along with the density of surface recombination centers will be studied at the laboratory, prior to fabricating optical resonators in clean rooms.



[1] S. Wirths et al, Nature Photonics, 9, 88–92 (2015)

[2] D. Stange et al, ACS Photonics, 3, 1279-1285 (2016)

Modelling of the Dynamics of Silicon Quantum Bits

SL-DRF-17-0052

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

Modélisation et Exploration des Matériaux (MEM)

Laboratoire de Simulation Atomistique (L_Sim)

Grenoble

Contact :

Yann Michel NIQUET

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Yann Michel NIQUET

CEA - DRF/INAC/MEM/L_Sim

04.38.78.21.86

Thesis supervisor :

Yann Michel NIQUET

CEA - DRF/INAC/MEM/L_Sim

04.38.78.21.86

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/L_Sim/Qui/YMNiquet/

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/L_Sim/

More : https://scholar.google.fr/citations?user=h02ymwoAAAAJ

"Quantum computers" will probably be able to solve problems beyond the reach of conventional computers. Such computers no longer manipulate electrons as particles, but as waves that maintain phase relationships and can interfere. The preparation, coherent manipulation and "reading" of quantum states is extremely challenging. One promising option for making "quantum bits" is to divert silicon MOS transistors in order to store one or a few electrons and manipulate their spin. The CEA Grenoble fabricates and characterizes such devices, and develops appropriate simulation tools.

The objective of this thesis is to study the dynamics of electrons and spins in these devices by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the presence of electronic interactions. Our aim is to optimize the control of the electrons and their spins, and to understand how the interactions of these electrons with their environment limit the "coherence time" during which it is possible to store quantum information. This study will be conducted in close collaboration with the experimental physics teams working on the subject at CEA/INAC, CEA/IRAMIS and CEA/LETI, and with the partners of CEA in Europe.

Signatures of electronic topological transitions on thermodynamic and transport properties

SL-DRF-17-0994

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Laboratoire Instrumentation Matériaux Avancés,Physique des Electrons Corrélés (IMAPEC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Alexandre POURRET

Georg KNEBEL

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Alexandre POURRET

UGA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/IMAPEC

04387883951

Thesis supervisor :

Georg KNEBEL

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/IMAPEC

04 38 78 39 51

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/alexandre.pourret/

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_groupe.php?id_groupe=487

More : http://lncmi-g.grenoble.cnrs.fr/spip.php?&lang=fr

Fermi surface instabilities have regained strong interest very recently with the discovery of topological materials where new exotic topological orders are expected to emerge close to a Fermi surface reconstruction. Electronic topological transitions are characterized by a change of the connectivity number of the Fermi surface. Recently, such topological transitions have been observed in some heavy fermion materials under application of high magnetic field. Such Fermi surface instabilities have been observed in quantum oscillation experiments of transport properties like the magnetoresistance and thermoelectric power. The present project focus on the feedback of topological transitions on thermodynamic and transport properties.

The second emphasis of the thesis will be on Fermi surface properties of recently discovered Weyl and Dirac semimetals. These systems have recently attracted strong interest as they have a linear band dispersion forming Weyl or Dirac cones giving rise to topological protected electronic states. We plan to study such states under high magnetic field close to the quantum limit.

Antiferromagnetic spintronics

SL-DRF-17-0057

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

Spintronique et technologie des composants (SPINTEC)

Laboratoire Spintec (SPINTEC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Vincent BALTZ

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Vincent BALTZ

CNRS - DFR/INAC/SPINTEC/SPINTEC

04 38 78 03 24

Thesis supervisor :

Vincent BALTZ

CNRS - DFR/INAC/SPINTEC/SPINTEC

04 38 78 03 24

Laboratory link : http://www.spintec.fr/research/antiferromagnetic-spintronics/

Antiferromagnetic materials (antiparallel alignment of the atomic magnetic moments) could represent the future of spintronic applications thanks to the numerous interesting features they combine: they are robust against perturbation due to magnetic fields, produce no stray fields, display ultrafast dynamics and are capable of generating large magneto-transport effects. Intense research efforts are being invested in unraveling spin-dependent transport properties in antiferromagnetic materials. Whether spin-dependent transport can be used to drive the antiferromagnetic order and how subsequent variations can be detected are some of the thrilling challenges to address.

The nature of the elements constituting the antiferromagnetic material and the quality of the interfaces will be the adjustable parameters. We will consider mainly the efficiency of spin injection and the interfacial filtering, the absorption of spins in the core of the material and the absorption characteristics lengths, the order temperatures and the magnetic susceptibility, and the efficiency of the spin-orbit coupling via the spin Hall effect.

This PhD thesis work is experimental. It will build on the many techniques of fabrication (sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, clean room nanofabrication) and characterization (magnetometry, ferromagnetic resonance, transport) at SPINTEC and benefit from the collaboration with our partner laboratories for experiments with a resonant cavity and for access to complementary materials.

Transport measurement in topological materials

SL-DRF-17-0278

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Laboratoire Instrumentation Matériaux Avancés,Physique des Electrons Corrélés (IMAPEC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Alexandre POURRET

Georg KNEBEL

Starting date : 01-09-2016

Contact :

Alexandre POURRET

UGA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/IMAPEC

04387883951

Thesis supervisor :

Georg KNEBEL

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/IMAPEC

04 38 78 39 51

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/alexandre.pourret/

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_groupe.php?id_groupe=338

The main objective of the project is to understand at a fundamental level the various unconventional phenomena that are present in the topological 3D semimetals with original experimental studies. Thus, the student will be involved in the characterization measurements (resistivity, thermoelectric power, specific heat...) at very low temperature and high magnetic field, data analysis, and improving the experimental device. He may also collaborate with others in the laboratory doing complementary measurements on these compounds and he may be bringing to perform experiments with large instruments (LNCMI...).

It is also consider giving the student the opportunity to realize his own crystals because the laboratory has a very performing crystal growth team.

The candidate will possess a strong background in physics of condensed matter and/or quantum mechanics and strong motivation for experimental work requiring complex and delicate instrumentation. They will become independent on cryogenic techniques, crystal growth and characterization relying initially on the expertise of researchers in the laboratory. They will actively participate in discussions and work with the team involved in the research topic.

Heat transport in solids, beyond the classical approximation

SL-DRF-17-0948

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Groupe Polymères Conducteurs Ioniques

Grenoble

Contact :

Stefano MOSSA

Jean-Louis BARRAT

Starting date :

Contact :

Stefano MOSSA

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/PCI

04 38 78 35 77

Thesis supervisor :

Jean-Louis BARRAT

Université Grenoble Alpes - LiPhy

Personal web page : http://stefano-mossa.weebly.com/

Heat transport in materials is a key property for a number of applications, and significant efforts are devoted to the design of materials with high (for heat transport applications) or low (e.g., for thermoelectric conversion) heat conductivity. It may then come as a surprise, that, in spite of the many developments in microscopic modeling of materials in the last 40 years, we still lack a well established, general method for computing thermal conductivities in insulating (or poor electrical conductors) solid materials. The goal of the project is to establish such a methodology, using the formalism of path integrals that allows one to take into account accurately nuclear quantum effects in condensed systems.

Mott memories

SL-DRF-17-0411

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Laboratoire Instrumentation Matériaux Avancés,Physique des Electrons Corrélés (IMAPEC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Gabriel MOLAS

Daniel BRAITHWAITE

Starting date : 01-10-2016

Contact :

Gabriel MOLAS

CEA - DRT/DCOS//LCM

04 38 78 92 56

Thesis supervisor :

Daniel BRAITHWAITE

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/IMAPEC

+33 4 38784411

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/daniel.braithwaite/

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/spsms/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_groupe.php?id_groupe=338

Mott insulators were the first strongly correlated electron systems to be studied. In these systems a standard band calculation finds a metallic state but surprisingly they are insulating. However the metallic state can be induced by the application of pressure or electric field. The proximity of the 2 states, metallic and insulating, opens possibilities for applications in micro-electronics

This PhD project aims to study the fundamental properties of selected Mott insulators as well as the properties of the metallic state. The objective is to better understand the mechanism of the electric field induced transition and determine if these materials offer a real advantage over other technologies for applications.

The candidate will address fundamental questions in physics, and learn many techniques, from growth of bulk or thin layer material, measurements in extreme conditions, to the fabrication of model devices for nano-electronics

Efficient single-photons source based on semiconductor nanowires

SL-DRF-17-0322

Research field : Solid state physics, surfaces and interfaces
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Laboratoire de Nano Physique des Semi-Conducteurs (NPSC)

Grenoble

Contact :

Edith BELLET-AMALRIC

Kuntheak KHENG

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Edith BELLET-AMALRIC

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/NPSC

04 38 78 44 06

Thesis supervisor :

Kuntheak KHENG

Universite Grenoble Alpes - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/NPSC

04 38 78 47 01

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/kuntheak.kheng/

Laboratory link : http://neel.cnrs.fr/spip.php?rubrique47

The single-photons source is a key element in the framework of quantum communication and computing. Single-photons, emitted one by one and encoded by their polarization, act as flying qubits for the information exchanges. They are in particular required in many quantum cryptography protocols, intrinsically secure, that allow the transmission of a secret decryption key. Such a source can be obtained using semiconductor quantum dots as demonstrated in various material system. However such demonstrations were mostly restricted to cryogenic temperatures. Our group has demonstrated very recently that a CdSe quantum dot inserted in a ZnSe nanowire can emit single-photons up to room temperature [1]. This first demonstration for an epitaxial quantum dot opens the prospect for a realistic application of quantum dots in quantum information technologies. Moreover, the emission in the visible spectral range of these CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots is particularly well suited for communications in free space (for ground-satellite links for example) thanks to the transparency of the atmosphere and the availability of fast single-photon detectors in this spectral domain.



The PhD goal consists in developing efficient single-photons sources made of quantum dots formed in II-VI semiconductor nanowires. It will consist in investigating (i) the growth of core-shell type nanowire heterostructures in order to enhance the emission quantum yield, (ii) the coupling of these nano-emitters to various photonic structures for an efficient light extraction and collection, (iii) the possibility to implement an optical excitation with micro-laser for a compact device. These studies offer the possibility to explore basic physical phenomena (growth mechanisms, nanostructure-photon interaction etc…) at the nanometric scale while contributing to the development of an original and essential device for the field of quantum communication and quantum information processing.



[1] Ultrafast Room Temperature Single-Photon Source from Nanowire-Quantum Dots, S. Bounouar et al., Nano Lett. 12, 2977 (2012).

Interaction effects on topological properties of multiterminal Josephson junctions

SL-DRF-17-0246

Research field : Theoretical Physics
Location :

Photonique, Electronique et Ingénierie Quantiques (PHELIQS)

Groupe Théorie (GT)

Grenoble

Contact :

Manuel HOUZET

Julia MEYER

Starting date : 01-09-2016

Contact :

Manuel HOUZET

CEA - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/GT

04.38.78.90.44

Thesis supervisor :

Julia MEYER

Université Grenoble Alpes - DRF/INAC/PHELIQS/GT

04.38.78.31.46

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/manuel.houzet

There is currently an active search for new phases of matter that admit topologically protected edge states. A promising route to realize them consists in combining conventional materials into appropriate heterostructures. Multiterminal Josephson junctions between conventional superconductors may be considered as topological materials themselves. As an example, 4-terminal junctions can accommodate topologically protected zero-energy bound states, which form so-called Weyl singularities. Their existence may be revealed through a quantized transconductance, like in the quantum Hall effect, but without magnetic field.

The aim of the project will be to explore further this recent idea by investigating theoretically the robustness of this prediction in the presence of local Coulomb repulsion within the junction. In particular, the fate of Weyl singularities will be analyzed within an actual quantum-dot model for the junction.

Inertial Confinement and Centimetric Cavity Collapse

SL-DRF-17-0894

Research field : Thermal energy, combustion, flows
Location :

Service des Basses Températures (SBT)

Laboratoire Cryogénie Fusion (LCF)

Grenoble

Contact :

Jérome DUPLAT

Starting date : 01-09-2017

Contact :

Jérome DUPLAT

Université Grenoble Alpes - UGA-CEA/SBT UMRe 9004

04 38 78 64 89

Thesis supervisor :

Jérome DUPLAT

Université Grenoble Alpes - UGA-CEA/SBT UMRe 9004

04 38 78 64 89

In the frame of the research on the inertial confinement to obtain the nuclear fusion, we intend to study the collapse dynamics of large nearly-void spherical bubble inside a liquid, provoking the inertial confinement of the matter trapped inside the cavity.

This process is similar to sonoluminescence experiment or to inertial confinement fusion experiement. However, our original setup allows to work at larger length and time scales,

and then allow the direct observation of all thermodynamical and hydrodynamical phenomena.



Preliminar experiments indicates that temperature higher than 20000 K can be reached, and maybe much more.



The experimental work will be a base for developing physical models.

High Reynolds turbulence. Study of the inertial and dissipative intermittencies in jet and von Karman cryogenic flows.

SL-DRF-17-0896

Research field : Thermal energy, combustion, flows
Location :

Service des Basses Températures (SBT)

Laboratoire Réfrigération et Thermohydraulique Hélium (LRTH)

Grenoble

Contact :

Alain GIRARD

Christophe BAUDET

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Alain GIRARD

CEA - DRF/INAC/SBT/LRTH

0438784365

Thesis supervisor :

Christophe BAUDET

UGA - LEGI

04 76 82 51 61

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/sbt

Turbulence is a phenomenon encountered in many natural and industrial conditions: for energy production, meteorological and environmental aspects, in transportation, in fusion, etc… This experimental thesis deals with fundamental aspects of turbulence, primarily the understanding of dynamics of small scales and intermittency. The difficulty in understanding this phenomenon can be accounted by the very reduced number of experiments available to study it over a wide range of scales. Cryogenic flows allow very high Reynolds numbers, opening a wide range of scales, from the forcing to the dissipative scales, with a wide range of intermediate (inertial) scales.

In this work, hot wire anemometers will be used in cryogenic flows: a recent PhD thesis has demonstrated the interest of these sensors both in normal and superfluid helium. These anemometers will be improved in reliability and resolution (both time and space), in order to analyze the small scales of the turbulent flows of the “Hejet” and “Shrek” facilities at SBT. These two facilities reach unsurpassed Reynolds numbers with well controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, Hejet is an “open” turbulent flow (a free jet), while Shrek is a “confined” turbulent flow (a Von Karman flow): they are complementary from the point of view of forcing/transfer/dissipative process. That is the second main interest of this work. Eventually, these flows can also run with superfluid Helium, where dissipation is described via the Landau two-fluid model, which opens a wide domain of studies.

Numerical simulation of pulse tube for space application: application to low temperature

SL-DRF-17-0986

Research field : Thermal energy, combustion, flows
Location :

Service des Basses Températures (SBT)

Laboratoire Cryoréfrigérateurs et Cryogénie Spatiale (LCCS)

Grenoble

Contact :

Sylvain MARTIN

Nicolas LUCHIER

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Sylvain MARTIN

CEA - DRF/INAC/SBT/LCCS

+ 33 4 38 78 31 71

Thesis supervisor :

Nicolas LUCHIER

CEA - DSM/INAC/SBT/L3C

0438783068

Pulse tube cryocoolers are widely used in space applications to cool down instruments for earth observation (e.g. Meteosat) or space observation (e.g. ATHENA, James Webb). There have been strong experimental development in the last years to lower the base temperature of such space cryocooler that have size, mass and power constraints. Last development were focused on 15K pulse tube cooler and 4K pulse tube cooler.

The aim of this project is to develop numerical simulation of space cryocoolers in order to better understand the thermo-hydraulic phenomena occurring at such low temperature. Ideal gas approach cannot be considered. Current numerical simulation often consider only the hydraulic parameters of the system into a defined temperature gradient. The objective is to couple both hydraulic and thermal behavior to understand how they couple together.

In order to validate the chosen approach, we aim at developing some experiments on sub-system of the pulse tube (i.e. the regenerator where complex heat exchanges occurs). At the end, the numerical simulation should be able to map several parameters (size, operating frequency, regenerator material) in order to design future pulse tube coolers.

Towards safer-by-design quantum dots

SL-DRF-17-0209

Research field : Toxicology
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Laboratoire Lésions des Acides Nucléiques

Grenoble

Contact :

Peter REISS

Marie CARRIÈRE

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Peter REISS

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/LEMOH

0438789719

Thesis supervisor :

Marie CARRIÈRE

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/LAN

0438780328

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/marie.carriere/

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_groupe.php?id_groupe=546

Quantum dots (QDs) are semi-conductor nanocrystals showing improved optical properties. Today, QDs are included in LCD screens, TVs, solar cells and OLEDs. These QDs are most of the time Cd-based QDs, i.e. CdSe. If not appropriately recycled, this equipment may release either QDs, or the toxic metal ions that they contain, in the environment. Strategies to reduce this toxicological impact consist in i) coating QDs with inert material such as ZnS to reduce the release of toxic metal ions, ii) developing QDs made of materials that are supposed to be less toxic, such as InP, CuInS2/CuInSe2.

In the frame of the SERENADE labex (SAQADO project), the aim of the present project is to develop new formulations of QDs, in a “safer-by-design” perspective. These formulations will then be tested for their toxicity, either in their pristine form, or after ageing under environmental conditions. Their physico-chemical properties and their fate after ageing will be characterized (size, composition, agglomeration/aggregation state, dissolution…). Their toxic effects will be assessed on human primary keratinocytes, particularly their cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage.

This pluri-disciplinary project involves biology experiments in a cell culture laboratory, physico-chemical analysis on medium and large-scale facilities such as the nanocharacterization platform at CEA Grenoble, X-ray tomography in Aix-en-Provence, as well as synchrotron beamlines. Therefore the candidate will have a pluridisciplinary background, possibly centered on biology/biotechnology/materials and chemistry/physico-chemistry.

Evaluation of the genotoxicity trough the quantification of DNA repair products

SL-DRF-17-0413

Research field : Toxicology
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Laboratoire Lésions des Acides Nucléiques

Grenoble

Contact :

Thierry DOUKI

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Thierry DOUKI

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/CIBEST

0438783191

Thesis supervisor :

Thierry DOUKI

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/CIBEST

0438783191

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/65/thierry.douki.html

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_groupe.php?id_groupe=546

A wide variety of physical and chemical agents may damage the chemical structure of DNA, and in particular nucleic bases. As a consequence, mutations are produced that may trigger the cancerization of the damaged cells. Fortunately, all cells have developed a series of enzymatic processes that can repair the damaged portion of DNA and limit the deleterious consequences of the damage. The effect of genotoxic agents results thus from the balance between the formation and the repair of DNA damage.

In classical in vitro experiments, cells are exposed to the studied agents and DNA is extracted at different times after the end of the exposure. The level of DNA damage determined immediately after treatment provides information on the genotoxic potential of the studied agent and the sensitivity of the cell type investigated. Measurements made at different time points after exposure provide information on the repair efficiency.

A drawback of this strategy is that numerous samples are needed. In addition, DNA has to be extracted. In the present PhD project, we want to quantify the damaged bases released from DNA by the repair enzymes. In particular, we want to quantify bulky adducts produced by pollutants and photoproducts resulting from exposure to solar light. The work will first involve extensive analytical chemistry developments, using mostly solid/liquid extraction and HPLC associated to mass spectrometry. The method will be then validated on cultured cells. Last, the protocol will be extended to the detection of repair products in biological fluids like urine for in vivo investigations.

The nucleotides pool imbalance as a biomarker of stress

SL-DRF-17-0717

Research field : Toxicology
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Laboratoire Lésions des Acides Nucléiques

Grenoble

Contact :

Jean-Luc RAVANAT

Starting date : 01-10-2016

Contact :

Jean-Luc RAVANAT

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/CIBEST

0438784797

Thesis supervisor :

Jean-Luc RAVANAT

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/CIBEST

0438784797

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/jean-luc.ravanat/

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/en/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_groupe.php?id_groupe=547

Several methods have been developed to study the genotoxicity of endogenous or exogenous stresses. To determine if such stresses could alter DNA (genotoxicology) the methods consist in the measurement of DNA lesions or their consequences (cell cycle arrest, micronuclei, mutations, chromosomal aberrations,). In our laboratory we have developed several approaches to determine the genotoxicity of ionizing (radiobiology) and non-ionizing (photobiology) radiations, nanoparticles (nanotoxicology), and HAPs (environmental toxicology). Our data and those from the abundant literature are difficult to rationalize, but all these stresses induce very low levels of DNA lesions. Thus DNA lesions or alterations could not be used as a marker of exposure to these stresses. Intriguingly, the effects of stresses on the nucleotides pool imbalance has been poorly studied. Actually, an imbalance of the nucleotide pool is known to significantly affect cell division and survival, as confirmed by the use of 5-fluorouracil (a thymine analog) in chemotherapy, due to its ability to inhibit thymine synthase and thus to induce a nucleotides pool imbalance.

The objective of that project is to develop a highly specific and quantitative method to measure at the cellular level the amounts of the different nucleotides, and to study the variations of their concentrations following exposure of isolated cells to various conditions of stress.

For such a purpose, first an HPLC coupled through electrospray ionization to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method (routinely used in the laboratory to quantify DNA lesions) will be develop to quantify natural nucleotides including mono-, di- and tri-phosphate derivatives, for both ribo- and desoxy-ribonucleotides. In a second step, the analytical method will be also applied to the measurement of less abundant nucleotide derivatives, including natural compounds such as AMPc, GMPc, FAD, SAM, Acyl-CoA, as well as modified nucleotides including for example 8-oxodGTP (arising from the oxidation of dGTP). Using such an approach, the concentrations of the above mentioned nucleotides will be determined in cells (in vitro) treated under several conditions of stress, for different doses and concentrations. The final objective is to determine if the nucleotides pool imbalance could be used as a good biomarker of stress.

Structure-properties correlations in hybrid perovskites for photovolataics

SL-DRF-17-0971

Research field : Ultra-divided matter, Physical sciences for materials
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Laboratoire d'Electronique Moléculaire, Organique et Hybride (LEMOH)

Grenoble

Contact :

Stéphanie POUGET

Peter REISS

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Stéphanie POUGET

CEA - DRF/INAC/MEM/SGX

04 38 78 54 63

Thesis supervisor :

Peter REISS

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/LEMOH

0438789719

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Phocea/Pisp/index.php?nom=peter.reiss

In the last five years solar cells based on hybrid perovskites have gained a tremendous research interest. This is principally due to the spectacular evolution of their power conversion efficiency, reaching more than 22% today, and to the possibility of low cost processing. On the other hand, the parameters governing the electronic properties of the hybrid perovskites as a function of their chemical structure and of the mechanisms determining the solar cell device operation are still poorly understood. Only by addressing these points it will be possible to leverage current challenges related to the limited long-term stability of perovskite solar cells and to the substitution of toxic lead in their composition.

In this context our team allies complementary competences spanning from advanced materials characterization using laboratory techniques and large infrastructures (ESRF, ILL) to the realization and test of photovoltaic devices on the Hybrid-EN platform. The present thesis builds on our experience with hybrid perovskite solar cells, which we acquired in the past 2-3 years.

Advanced atomic-scale structural characterization of functional materials

SL-DRF-17-0314

Research field : Ultra-divided matter, Physical sciences for materials
Location :

Modélisation et Exploration des Matériaux (MEM)

Laboratoire de Résonance Magnétique (RM)

Grenoble

Contact :

Daniel LEE

Gaël DE PAEPE

Starting date : 01-09-2017

Contact :

Daniel LEE

CEA - DRF/INAC/MEM/RM

0438786584

Thesis supervisor :

Gaël DE PAEPE

CEA - DRF/INAC/MEM

04 38 78 65 70

Personal web page : http://inac.cea.fr/Pisp/daniel.lee/

Laboratory link : http://inac.cea.fr/en/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_visu.php?id_ast=1111

INAC (Institute for Nanoscience and Cryogenics, CEA Grenoble) has a PhD opening for a physicist/chemist. This position will deal with the development and implementation of an emerging and powerful atomic-level characterization technique, namely high magnetic field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP), thus bridging fundamental and application-driven research. DNP is used to hyperpolarize nuclei such that high sensitivity can be attained for solid-state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) experiments, allowing the extraction of important structural information, such as surface functionalization and internuclear distances, as well as crystallographic data.



Since the potential of this technique is only just beginning to be realized, and mainly for organic-based systems, the aim of this PhD will be to further develop the methodology and apply it to characterize functional (nano)materials of significant importance for both CEA as well as external collaborators/industry, which could not have been otherwise investigated in such a manner. The studied materials will arise from diverse but related fields including fuel cells (CEA/INAC), photovoltaics (CEA/INAC + external), hybrid organic/inorganic polymers (CEA/LETI + industry), and functionalized nanoparticles (CEA/LITEN).



This PhD will take place in the highly dynamical environment of the MINATEC campus (CEA Grenoble) and more specifically in the nanocharacterization platform (PFNC) where the DNP group, in collaboration with Bruker Biospin (world leader in DNP and NMR instrumentation), is currently pushing the development and use of DNP far beyond its current state-of-the-art. The group is working with the first high-field DNP system installed in France (since September 2011) and has successfully conducted theoretical, methodological, and instrumental developments over the last 5 years.



The work of the PhD candidate represents an interdisciplinary project that will involve:

- mastering sample preparation for DNP of the various systems under investigation (30 %)

- performing spin-dynamics simulations to improve NMR methodology (20 %)

- conducting advanced solid-state MAS-DNP experiments (50 %)

The PhD candidate will thus attain an understanding of quantum mechanics for the spin dynamics at stake in MAS-DNP experiments and for the development and implementation of innovative pulse sequences. A sound knowledge of chemistry and materials science will also be acquired as commanding DNP sample preparation and data interpretation will be paramount to the success of the project.

Self-organization in magnetic thin films elaborated by sol gel

SL-DRF-17-0122

Research field : Ultra-divided matter, Physical sciences for materials
Location :

Modélisation et Exploration des Matériaux (MEM)

Laboratoire Nanostructures et Rayonnement Synchrotron (NRS)

Grenoble

Contact :

Christine REVENANT

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Christine REVENANT

CEA - DRF/INAC/MEM/NRS

04.38.78.97.81

Thesis supervisor :

Christine REVENANT

CEA - DRF/INAC/MEM/NRS

04.38.78.97.81

Personal web page : https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Christine_Revenant

Laboratory link : http://ceasciences.fr/institut/?id=58

More : http://liten.cea.fr/cea-tech/liten

The scientific context is self-organization in thin films which is currently an important area of research. A promising way is to organize different components in mesoporous thin films elaborated by sol-gel. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, the possibility of depositing on large surfaces, even flexible and low cost. Recently, we put in evidence self-organized nanoparticles in semiconducting thin films elaborated by sol-gel. Now we want to apply our expertise to the case of magnetic thin films.

The proposed work is the study of the structure, morphology and properties of magnetic thin films prepared by sol-gel. In practice, the student will elaborate the samples and realize the electrical measurements at CEA/LITEN and the magnetic characterizations at CEA/LETI. The structural study will be done at INAC using advanced electron microscopy and x-ray techniques. Specific synchrotron experiments will also be performed especially at ESRF.

The expected results are the understanding of the organization of the porosity and of the constituents in the thin films and the highlighting of key parameters. Thus, new devices could be considered especially for magnetic applications.

Catalytic properties of doped graphene for applications in renewable energies: a theoretical study

SL-DRF-17-0688

Research field : Ultra-divided matter, Physical sciences for materials
Location :

SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé (SyMMES)

Laboratoire de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination

Grenoble

Contact :

Steven BLUNDELL

Pascale MALDIVI

Starting date : 01-10-2017

Contact :

Steven BLUNDELL

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/RICC

04 38 78 59 39

Thesis supervisor :

Pascale MALDIVI

CEA - DRF/INAC/SyMMES/RICC

04 38 78 53 03

Graphene is a novel two-dimensional nanomaterial, first synthesized in 2004, which has generated enormous excitement on account of its remarkable properties, such as very high charged-carrier mobility. Recently, it has been realized that derivatives of graphene can also be highly effective metal-free catalysts, which are cheaper, more durable, and more readily synthesized than conventional noble-metal catalysts such as Pt. Many applications to alternative energies are now being vigorously pursued, including to fuel cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the mechanisms of the catalytic processes are poorly understood, and significant optimization of the materials is still required for practical applications.



This thesis will study the catalytic properties of various forms of doped graphene using modern, state-of-the-art methods of electronic-structure theory and atomistic simulation, which are capable of yielding insights at the atomic level that are not readily accessible from experiment. The primary focus will be on the use of doped graphene as a catalyst in fuel cells, where the rate-limiting step is invariably the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode. Using methods of density functional theory, we will analyze the electronic-structure modifications induced by defects and impurity atoms, compute energy barriers and reaction pathways for the ORR on the graphene surface, and determine the favored catalytic sites. Impurities to be considered will include nitrogen and others presently being studied by experimental groups in our lab, with whom we will collaborate closely.

 

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